1 Introduction With the rapid development of laser cutting technology, the process of processing non-metallic sheet with laser cutting machine has been relatively mature, and has been widely used in the packaging industry and advertising industries, but there are also many unsatisfactory aspects. At present, most laser processing processes use single-head high-power lasers, which have high operating costs and high maintenance costs, and affect the application of advanced laser cutting technology in small and medium-sized enterprises. According to the market situation, a low-power double C2 laser head cutting machine was developed and developed. Two 100W C2 lasers were used, and the double-cut head was used for double-sided coaxial cutting of the die-cutting board to realize cutting with a small power laser. The die-cutting board solves the technical problems such as the width of the cutting slit and the irregularity of the surface of the cutting seam, improves the cutting quality of the non-metal sheet, and solves the problems of high manufacturing cost, maintenance cost and high practical cost of the high-power laser cutting machine. The product has been put into mass production and is widely used in wood processing, advertising, packaging and other industries.
C2 laser cutting machine is a comprehensive technical equipment integrating light, machine and electricity. The parameters of the laser beam, the performance and accuracy of the machine and the CNC system directly affect the efficiency and quality of the laser cutting. In the development stage of the double C2 laser die cutting machine, the key technical problems in four aspects are solved: 1) When the double laser cutting machine is cut, the processing of the remaining laser after the cutting of the wooden board (non-metallic material) avoids the interference of the upper and lower optical paths. 2) Tracking of the focus of the dual laser head, which is directly related to the lower seam shape and quality of the die cutting board. Due to the non-contact cutting, the requirements of the upper and lower laser heads are consistent with the workpiece, and the distance control requirements of the focal length to the cutting point are more High;) Cutting slit width and precision, in the case of one-time cutting material, must meet the width of the cutting gap, and the upper and lower mouths are required to be consistent, the error is small, the cutting precision must reach 0.2mm according to the requirements of the die cutting board. m; 4) When laser cutting, a large amount of smoke will be generated, which needs to be processed in time to avoid affecting the transmission efficiency of light.
In this paper, a single laser head cutting machine and a double laser head cutting machine cut wood sheets of the same nature and tested at different powers. The quality of the cut sheet was analyzed and compared to find the best cutting power efficiency. And cost-effective, to provide a basis for product development.
2 The technical problem of cutting non-metal plate by single laser head cutting machine Because the laser has good monochromaticity and small divergence angle, it can theoretically focus on small spots with the size close to the wavelength of light wave, and the power density at the focus can reach 1071011w. /cm2, the temperature can be as high as 10,000 degrees Celsius, so it is an ideal heat source for cutting. Laser cutting has become widely used as one of the most mature technologies in laser processing due to its wide cutting range, high speed, narrow slit, good quality, small heat affected zone and large processing flexibility.
The laser cutting machine is a thermal cutting method that uses a focused high-power density laser beam to illuminate the surface of the workpiece to rapidly melt or ablate the irradiated material, and at the same time blows away the carbide by the high-pressure gas to realize the cutting of the workpiece. The cutting principle is as shown.
2.1 Influence of laser power on cutting depth The choice of laser power and cutting speed is a key factor affecting cutting quality and efficiency. Research and practical application show that the laser power directly affects the cutting speed. Under certain conditions, the laser power is larger and the cutting speed is larger, which greatly improves the production efficiency, but there are also power waste and seam shape problems. In research and development, the performance of laser-cut wood panels has a great relationship with the laser power, and also related to the material and humidity of the wood panels. Use a single-head high-power laser cutter for wood panels (.
From the test results, it is known that at the same cutting speed, the depth of cut increases as the laser power increases. This is because the greater the power, the greater the power density, the more energy input per unit time, and the greater the depth of the cut. When the single laser cuts the wooden die-cutting board, the laser power is within 100W, and the cutting depth is basically linear with the power. Above 100W, the cutting depth does not change too much with the increase of power. The main reason is that the C2 laser has a threshold effect on the cutting depth of the wood board. Before the laser power reaches the threshold of the material to be cut, the cutting depth is linear with the power, and after the laser power exceeds the threshold, the power is not linear. Increase the depth of cut.
The main constraint is that the laser power is absorbed by a large amount of the surface of the plate that has been cut, so that the surface of the die-cut board is widened; if the wood board is to be further cut, it must be at the expense of greater power. Therefore, the single-head high-power laser cutting machine in the industry usually has a minimum power of more than 600W, and the general-purpose cutting machine on the market has a laser power of about 1200W.
2.2 The influence of laser power on the width and shape of the wooden board. The speed of the laser power and the speed of the cutting speed not only affect the seam width of the wood board, but also affect the seam shape, that is, the size of the upper and lower mouth of the slit along with the power and cutting. Change with speed. For laser-cut slits, the upper and lower mouths are equal in size, that is, rectangular seams are ideal, but it is difficult to achieve in practical applications. The 20 mm thick wood board was cut with a single-head high-power C2 laser to adjust the laser power to 40, 60, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 W. The test results are shown.
It can be seen that as the laser power increases, the upper surface of the slit becomes wider, and the change trend of the upper and lower ports is different. In the low power zone, the width of the lower opening is slightly smaller than that of the upper opening, and the slit is an inverted trapezoidal slit; in the high power zone, the width of the upper opening is much larger than that of the lower opening, and the slit is a distinct trapezoidal slit, because the surface of the material absorbs the laser power. As the power increases, the rate of widening of the upper port is greater than that of the lower port. When the laser power is about 100 W, the width of the lower opening is substantially equal to the width of the upper opening, the slit is close to the rectangular slit, and the slit width is within 0.52 mm.
Obviously, when using a single laser cutting machine for die cutting, the cutting quality is limited, and manual grinding is required after laser processing to ensure the quality requirements of the die cutting board.
The principle and process of 3 low-power double CC2 laser head cutting machine Because of the high manufacturing cost and high running cost of high-power single laser head cutting machine, there is no cost-effective advantage in cutting non-metal sheet, so this kind of product is not widely available. Applications. According to the market demand, a new low-power double C2 laser head cutting machine was researched and developed using a new cutting method, which adopts two-way cutting. The principle is as shown.
The cutting machine makes full use of the threshold effect of the laser power on the cutting depth of the wood material, and the unidirectional cutting is a bidirectional cutting, and the cutting of the wooden die cutting board with the thickness of 20 mm or less is completed within the threshold range without increasing the laser power to cause the threshold. The waste of laser energy above. The relationship between laser power and cutting depth is as shown.
Comparing and analyzing the sum, it can be seen that the double-laser is used to cut the die-cutting plate at the same speed. To achieve the same effect as the high-power single laser cutting machine, the power required is only 1/4 of the latter, and the cutting quality is But it has greatly improved. Using the double C2 laser cutting machine to make the die-cutting board, the main factors affecting the processing quality are the adjustment of the optical path of the upper and lower lasers, the influence of the focal length on the slit, and the accuracy compensation.
3.1 Optical path adjustment When the laser cutting machine is working, if the cutting laser head moves, it is difficult to ensure that the upper and lower laser heads are on one axis. A slight offset of the laser path creates a large error. At the same time, the moving laser head must be strongly cooled and exhausted, and vibration is easily generated in the process, which also causes errors. In order to avoid the accumulated error caused by the movement of the laser, the design of the work table where the workpiece is placed is fixed by the laser head, and the operation is carried out under the control of the computer, which not only ensures the stability of the cutting optical path, but also ensures the slitting. Consistency and accuracy of the overall graphics. The interference of the light path is avoided and the laser head is easy to track.
The range of adjustable width has certain limitations. For C2 laser-cut wood panels, the range is usually only 0.300.71mm. For slits with a width of 0.71mm or more, the cutting is difficult to complete. Generally, the slit is used to offset the center. Move twice to complete the indicator requirements. In the test, the laser focus of the upper and lower laser heads is directly opposite to the surface of the workpiece, and the slit is the smallest and the cutting performance is the best. If you need to increase the width of the slit, you can use the positive focus to widen the slit, but the cutting ability will decrease. For different non-metal processing materials, the slit width can be adjusted within the range of 0.350.71mm, which generally meets the molding requirements, but in some special cases, the slit can not meet the requirements (such as the indentation line width is 1.103.00mm ). For this purpose, a knife-cutting correction method is adopted, that is, the computer software adjustment function is changed into a secondary cutting by the software setting, thereby obtaining the required slit width. The line width exceeding 0. 75mm in the design pattern is changed from single line to double line, the center line is center-shifted, and the symmetrical offset is selected according to the required width. The method is easy to implement, and the slit width can be arbitrarily set according to the requirements of the workpiece, which solves the practical problem of the wide seam requirement in the laser processing of the die cutting board.
3.3 Accuracy Compensation The accuracy of mechanical transmission is guaranteed by the accuracy of the transmission equipment. For the cutting of a closed figure, the mechanical transmission has the problem of positive and negative rotation, and the backlash affects the machining accuracy. For a single figure, its accuracy has little effect, and the laser die-cutting plate flat pattern is often processed on the flat plate by multiple patterns at a time, so that the accumulated error of the side gap is large. In order to overcome these accumulated errors, technological innovations have been made from software development, using backlash positive and negative compensation, which eliminates the influence of backlash on accuracy and reduces the accuracy requirements of transmission parts in the transmission system. It is possible to select a timing belt with a low transmission accuracy as a transmission mechanism of the laser cutting device, which greatly reduces the cost and also achieves an excellent precision effect. The specific machining process and the compensated machining pattern are as shown.
For the X-axis motor to reverse, Y+ is the Y-axis motor forward rotation, and the Y-axis motor is reversed. It can be seen that the X and Y axis movements occur once in the whole process. The test results show that if the backlash is 0.06mm, no compensation is performed, and the result of the machining is as shown. The lower figure is offset to the left by 0.06mm, and the upward offset is 0.06mm. The middle line is offset and not in a line. , can not reach the precision required to machine the workpiece. If the graphics are copied in multiple copies, the resulting cumulative error will cause severe distortion and the overall project accuracy requirements will not be achieved. Through the backlash compensation, the accuracy requirement can be fully achieved.
The machining process and the compensated machining pattern are not compensated for the machining pattern. 4 Conclusion The low-power double-co2 laser head is used to cut the non-metal die-cutting board, which can successfully solve the problem of limited depth of the medium- and small-power 002 laser cutting board. The technology of optical path fixing and working platform movement has successfully solved the technical problems of difficult to control slitting and uneven cutting speed when cutting the flying optical path. It can achieve the cutting of 618mm thick wooden board at one time, and the slit width is adjustable at 0.350.71mm. 0. The effect that can be set above 71mm. Therefore, the low-power dual-C02 laser cutting machine can be widely used in wood processing, advertising, packaging and other industries.
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